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Agronomy 2017, 7(2), 32; doi:10.3390/agronomy7020032

CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 461, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden
2
Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, Ökologiezentrum 2, August-von-Hartmann Str. 3, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hans-Joachim Weigel
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of CO2 Concentration and Enrichment on Crops)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2855 KB, uploaded 25 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein/nitrogen (N) concentration. Also, other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating the effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn), and starch. The analysis was performed by (i) deriving response functions to assess the gradual change in element concentration with increasing CO2 concentration, (ii) meta-analysis to test the average magnitude and significance of observed effects, and (iii) relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses ranged from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with the largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements of N, Fe, S, Zn, and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained only by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2. View Full-Text
Keywords: Triticum aestivum; carbon dioxide; minerals; protein; starch; baking properties; crop quality; food security Triticum aestivum; carbon dioxide; minerals; protein; starch; baking properties; crop quality; food security
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Broberg, M.C.; Högy, P.; Pleijel, H. CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions. Agronomy 2017, 7, 32.

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