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Agronomy 2017, 7(1), 18; doi:10.3390/agronomy7010018

Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

1
Fruit Tree Biotechnology Group, Department of Plant Breeding, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, P.O. Box 164, E-30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Irrigation Department, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, P.O. Box 164, E-30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Palma and Peter Langridge
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Further Metabolism in Plant System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2147 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive mechanisms; antioxidative metabolism; chloroplast; osmotic regulation; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; salinity; water relations adaptive mechanisms; antioxidative metabolism; chloroplast; osmotic regulation; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; salinity; water relations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Acosta-Motos, J.R.; Ortuño, M.F.; Bernal-Vicente, A.; Diaz-Vivancos, P.; Sanchez-Blanco, M.J.; Hernandez, J.A. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms. Agronomy 2017, 7, 18.

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