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Agronomy 2016, 6(2), 22; doi:10.3390/agronomy6020022

Wheat Sown with Narrow Spacing Results in Higher Yield and Water Use Efficiency under Deficit Supplemental Irrigation at the Vegetative and Reproductive Stage

1
Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 6100, Pakistan
2
Department of Plant Protection, Gaziosmanapaşa University, Tokat 60000, Turkey
3
Department of Plant Protection, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin 9000, Turkey
4
College of Agriculture, BZU Campus, Layyah 31200, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Debbie Sparkes
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
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Abstract

A decrease in water resources around the globe in irrigated agriculture has resulted in a steep decline in irrigation water availability. Therefore, management options for efficient use of available irrigation water are inevitable. Deciding the critical time, frequency and amount of irrigation are compulsory to achieve higher crop outputs. Hence, this two-year field study was conducted to assess the role of different row spacings, i.e., 20, 25 and 30 cm, on growth, productivity, and water use efficiency (WUE) of wheat under deficit supplemental irrigation (DSI) at the vegetative and reproductive phase by using surplus supplemental irrigation (SSI) throughout the growing season as the control. DSI at both growth stages, and the reproductive stage in particular, changed the crop allometry, yield and net income of wheat. However, narrow spacing (20 cm) resulted in efficient use of available irrigation water (DSI and SSI) with higher yield, WUE and economic returns. Interestingly, wider spacing resulted in a higher number of grains per spike with higher 1000-grain weight under SSI and DSI, but final yield output remained poor due to a lower number of productive tillers. It was concluded that reducing irrigation during the vegetative stage is less damaging compared with the reproductive phase; therefore, sufficient supplemental irrigation must be added at the reproductive stage, particularly during grain-filling. Further, narrow spacing (20 cm) resulted in efficient utilization of available irrigation water; therefore, wheat must be grown at a narrow spacing to ensure the efficient utilization of available irrigation water. View Full-Text
Keywords: deficit supplemental irrigation; row spacing; wheat; net income deficit supplemental irrigation; row spacing; wheat; net income
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, M.; Farooq, S.; Jabran, K.; Ijaz, M.; Sattar, A.; Hassan, W. Wheat Sown with Narrow Spacing Results in Higher Yield and Water Use Efficiency under Deficit Supplemental Irrigation at the Vegetative and Reproductive Stage. Agronomy 2016, 6, 22.

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