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Agronomy 2015, 5(2), 188-199; doi:10.3390/agronomy5020188

The Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Rhizophagus intraradices Reduces the Negative Effects of Arsenic on Soybean Plants

Instituto de Investigaciones en Biociencias Agrícolas y Ambientales (INBA) (CONICET/UBA). Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Av. San Martín 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gareth Norton
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Abstract

Arsenic (As) in soils causes several detrimental effects, including death. Arsenic toxicity in soybean plants (Glycine max L.) has been little studied. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) increase the tolerance of host plants to abiotic stress, like As. We investigated the effects of AM fungi on soybean grown in As-contaminated soils. A pot experiment was carried out in a glasshouse, at random with five replications. We applied three levels of As (0, 25, and 50 mg As kg−1), inoculated and non-inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (N.C. Schenck & G.S. Sm.) C. Walker & A. Schüßler. Plant parameters and mycorrhizal colonization were measured. Arsenic in the substrate, roots, and leaves was quantified. Arsenic negatively affected the AM percentage of spore germination and hyphal length. As also affected soybean plants negatively: an extreme treatment caused a reduction of more than 77.47% in aerial biomass, 68.19% in plant height, 78.35% in number of leaves, and 44.96% reduction in root length, and delayed the phenological evolution. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved all of these parameters, and decreased plant As accumulation (from 7.8 mg As kg−1 to 6.0 mg As kg−1). AM inoculation showed potential to reduce As toxicity in contaminated areas. The AM fungi decreased As concentration in plants following different ways: dilution effect, less As intake by roots, and improving soybean tolerance to As. View Full-Text
Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhiza; arsenic; soybean arbuscular mycorrhiza; arsenic; soybean
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Spagnoletti, F.; Lavado, R.S. The Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Rhizophagus intraradices Reduces the Negative Effects of Arsenic on Soybean Plants. Agronomy 2015, 5, 188-199.

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