Next Article in Journal
New Eco-Friendly Phosphorus Organic Polymers as Gas Storage Media
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Type-II Acetylated Cellulose Nanocrystals with Various Degree of Substitution and Its Compatibility in PLA Films
Previous Article in Journal
Cure Behavior and Thermomechanical Properties of Phthalonitrile–Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Copolymers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nanopaper Properties and Adhesive Performance of Microfibrillated Cellulose from Different (Ligno-)Cellulosic Raw Materials
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9080335

Membranes Based on Cellulose Nanofibers and Activated Carbon for Removal of Escherichia coli Bacteria from Water

1
Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, 33 El-Behouth street, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
2
Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleä University of Technology, SE 97187 Luleä, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [16915 KB, uploaded 3 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cellulosic nanomaterials are potential candidates in different areas, especially in water treatment. In the current work, palm fruit stalks cellulose nanofibers (CNF), TEMPO-oxidized CNF (OCNF), and activated carbon (AC) were used to make thin film membranes for removal of E. coli bacteria from water. Two types of layered membranes were produced: a single layer setup of crosslinked CNF and a two-layer setup of AC/OCNF (bottom) and crosslinked CNF (up) on hardened filter paper. The prepared membranes were evaluated regarding their microstructure and layers thickness using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water flux and rejection of E. coli bacteria was tested using dead end stirred cells at 1 MPa pressure. Thickness of the cosslinked CNF layer in both types of membranes was about 0.75 micron. The results showed that exchanging water by isopropyl alcohol before drying increased porosity of membranes, and thus resulted in increasing pure water flux and flux of bacteria suspension. The two-layer AC/OCNF/CNF membrane had much higher water flux than the single layer CNF due to higher porosity seen on the surface of the former. Both types of membranes showed high capability of removing E. coli bacteria (rejection ~96–99%) with slightly higher efficiency for the AC/OCNF/CNF membrane than CNF membrane. AC/OCNF/CNF membrane also showed resistance against growth of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria on the upper CNF surface while the single layer CNF membrane did not show resistance against growth of the aforementioned bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanofibers; palm fruit stalks; activated carbon; membrane; water purification; E. coli cellulose nanofibers; palm fruit stalks; activated carbon; membrane; water purification; E. coli
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hassan, M.; Abou-Zeid, R.; Hassan, E.; Berglund, L.; Aitomäki, Y.; Oksman, K. Membranes Based on Cellulose Nanofibers and Activated Carbon for Removal of Escherichia coli Bacteria from Water. Polymers 2017, 9, 335.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top