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Polymers 2017, 9(2), 78; doi:10.3390/polym9020078

Bond Performance of Sand Coated UHM CFRP Tendons in High Performance Concrete

1
Mechanical Systems Engineering Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
2
Institute for Building Materials (IfB), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Departement of Engineering, Pathenope University of Naples, 80143 Naples, Italy
4
Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
5
Center for X-ray Analytics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
6
Institute for Infrastructure & Environment, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3FB Edinburgh, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alper Ilki
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract

The bond behaviour of novel, sand-coated ultra-high modulus (UHM) carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) tendons to high performance concrete (HPC) was studied by a combined numerical and experimental approach. A series of pull-out tests revealed that the failure type can vary between sudden and continuous pull-out depending on the chosen sand coating grain size. Measuring the same shear stress vs. tendon draw-in (τ-δ) curves in the same test set-up, for sand coated CFRP tendons with a longitudinal stiffness of 137 and 509 GPa, respectively, indicated that the absolute bond strength in both cases was not influenced by the tendon’s stiffness. However, the τ-δ curves significantly differed in terms of the draw-in rate, showing higher draw-in rate for the UHM CFRP tendon. With the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and visual analysis methods, the bond failure interface was located between the CFRP tendon and the surrounding sand-epoxy layer. For further investigation, a simplified finite element analysis (FEA) of the tendon pull-out was performed using a cohesive surface interaction model and the software Abaqus 6.14. A parametric study, varying the tendon-related material properties, revealed the tendon’s longitudinal stiffness to be the only contributor to the difference in the τ-δ curves found in the experiments, thus to the shear stress transfer behaviour between the CFRP tendon and the concrete. In conclusion, the excellent bond of the sand-coated UHM CFRP tendons to HPC as well as the deeper insight in the bond failure mechanism encourages the application of UHM CFRP tendons for prestressing applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: CFRP; UHM carbon fibre; UTS carbon fibre; prestressing tendon; sand coated; bond; HPC; pull-out test; finite element modelling (FEM); X-ray tomography CFRP; UHM carbon fibre; UTS carbon fibre; prestressing tendon; sand coated; bond; HPC; pull-out test; finite element modelling (FEM); X-ray tomography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lämmlein, T.D.; Messina, F.; Griffa, M.; Terrasi, G.P.; Lura, P. Bond Performance of Sand Coated UHM CFRP Tendons in High Performance Concrete. Polymers 2017, 9, 78.

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