Theoretical Confirmation of the Quinone Methide Hypothesis for the Condensation Reactions in Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Synthesis
AbstractThe mechanisms for the base-catalyzed condensation reactions in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis were investigated by using the density functional theory method. The structures of the intermediates and transition states, as well as the potential energy barriers of the involved reactions, were obtained. The hypothesis of quinine methide (QM) formation was theoretically confirmed. Two mechanisms were identified for QM formation, namely E1cb (elimination unimolecular conjugate base) and water-aided intra-molecular water elimination. The latter is energetically more favorable and is proposed for the first time in this work. Based on the QM mechanism, the condensation should be a unimolecular reaction because the following condensation between an ionized species (dissociated phenol or hydroxymethylphenol) with QM is much faster. The previously proposed SN2 condensation mechanism was found to be not competitive over the QM mechanism due to a much higher energy barrier. The condensation reaction between neutral phenol or hydroxymethylphenol and QM was also found to be possible. The energy barrier of this reaction is close to or higher than that of QM formation. Therefore, the overall condensation reaction may appear to be bimolecular if such a reaction is incorporated. The theoretical calculations in this work rationalized the discrepant results reported in previous kinetics studies well. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Li, T.; Cao, M.; Liang, J.; Xie, X.; Du, G. Theoretical Confirmation of the Quinone Methide Hypothesis for the Condensation Reactions in Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Synthesis. Polymers 2017, 9, 45.
Li T, Cao M, Liang J, Xie X, Du G. Theoretical Confirmation of the Quinone Methide Hypothesis for the Condensation Reactions in Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Synthesis. Polymers. 2017; 9(2):45.Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Taohong; Cao, Ming; Liang, Jiankun; Xie, Xiaoguang; Du, Guanben. 2017. "Theoretical Confirmation of the Quinone Methide Hypothesis for the Condensation Reactions in Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Synthesis." Polymers 9, no. 2: 45.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.