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Polymers 2017, 9(12), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120654

Poly(piperazine-amide)/PES Composite Multi-Channel Capillary Membranes for Low-Pressure Nanofiltration

1
Management Center Innsbruck (MCI)—The Entrepreneurial School, Department of Environmental, Process & Energy Engineering, Maximilianstrasse 2, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52c, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Membranes)
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Abstract

The mechanical stability of conventional single-channel capillary fibres can be improved in a multi-channel geometry, which has previously found application in ultrafiltration. In this work, multi-channel polyethersulfone (PES) capillary membranes comprising seven feed channels were successfully fabricated in an enhanced steam–dry–wet spinning process and coated on the inner surface with a thin polyamide (PA) layer via interfacial polymerization (IP). The coating procedure consisted of impregnating the support multi-channel capillary membranes (MCM) with an aqueous piperazine solution, flushing with nitrogen gas to remove excess droplets, and pumping an organic trimesoylchloride solution through the channels. Insights into the interfacial polymerization process were gained through the investigation of various parameters, including monomer ratio, contact time, and drying time. Membranes were characterised via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and filtration experiments. The optimisation of both the PES support membrane and IP process parameters allowed for the fabrication of composite MCM with an MgSO4 rejection of 91.4% and a solute flux of 68.8 L m−2 h−1 at an applied pressure of 3 bar. The fabricated composite MCM demonstrates that a favourable multi-channel arrangement can be upgraded with a PA layer for application in low-pressure nanofiltration. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-channel membrane; capillary membrane; interfacial polymerization; low-pressure nanofiltration; water softening multi-channel membrane; capillary membrane; interfacial polymerization; low-pressure nanofiltration; water softening
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Back, J.O.; Spruck, M.; Koch, M.; Mayr, L.; Penner, S.; Rupprich, M. Poly(piperazine-amide)/PES Composite Multi-Channel Capillary Membranes for Low-Pressure Nanofiltration. Polymers 2017, 9, 654.

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