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Polymers 2015, 7(2), 161-185; doi:10.3390/polym7020161

Direct Determination of Chitosan–Mucin Interactions Using a Single-Molecule Strategy: Comparison to Alginate–Mucin Interactions

1
Biophysics and Medical Technology, Department of Physics, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Biotechnology, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Böker
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosans)
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Abstract

Aqueous chitosan possesses attractive interaction capacities with various molecular groups that can be involved in hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In the present paper, we report on the direct determination of chitosan–mucin molecular pair interactions at various solvent conditions as compared to alginate–mucin interactions. Two chitosans of high molecular weight with different degrees of acetylation—thus possessing different solubility profiles in aqueous solution as a function of pH and two alginates with different fractions of α-guluronic acid were employed. The interaction properties were determined through a direct unbinding assay at the single-molecular pair level using an atomic force microscope. When probed against immobilized mucin, both chitosans and alginates revealed unbinding profiles characteristic of localized interactions along the polymers. The interaction capacities and estimated parameters of the energy landscapes of the pairwise chitosan–mucin and alginate–mucin interactions are discussed in view of possible contributions from various fundamental forces. Signatures arising both from an electrostatic mechanism and hydrophobic interaction are identified in the chitosan–mucin interaction properties. The molecular nature of the observed chitosan–mucin and alginate–mucin interactions indicates that force spectroscopy provides fundamental insights that can be useful in understanding the surface binding properties of other potentially mucoadhesive polymers. View Full-Text
Keywords: AFM (atomic force microscopy); mucin; chitosan; mucoadhesion; force spectroscopy AFM (atomic force microscopy); mucin; chitosan; mucoadhesion; force spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haugstad, K.E.; Håti, A.G.; Nordgård, C.T.; Adl, P.S.; Maurstad, G.; Sletmoen, M.; Draget, K.I.; Dias, R.S.; Stokke, B.T. Direct Determination of Chitosan–Mucin Interactions Using a Single-Molecule Strategy: Comparison to Alginate–Mucin Interactions. Polymers 2015, 7, 161-185.

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