Polymers 2010, 2(4), 728-765; doi:10.3390/polym2040728
Review

Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications

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Received: 9 October 2010; in revised form: 29 October 2010 / Accepted: 8 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polymers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature. Extracted from natural fibers, its hierarchical and multi-level organization allows different kinds of nanoscaled cellulosic fillers—called cellulose nanocrystals or microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)—to be obtained. Recently, such cellulose nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works or reviews devoted to understanding such materials and their applications. Major studies over the last decades have shown that cellulose nanoparticles could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging is being investigated, with continuous studies to find innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems. Processing is more and more important and different systems are detailed in this paper depending on the polymer solubility, i.e., (i) hydrosoluble systems, (ii) non-hydrosoluble systems, and (iii) emulsion systems. This paper intends to give a clear overview of cellulose nanoparticles reinforced composites with more than 150 references by describing their preparation, characterization, properties and applications.
Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals; cellulose whiskers; microfibrillated cellulose; bio-nanocomposites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siqueira, G.; Bras, J.; Dufresne, A. Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications. Polymers 2010, 2, 728-765.

AMA Style

Siqueira G, Bras J, Dufresne A. Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications. Polymers. 2010; 2(4):728-765.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siqueira, Gilberto; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain. 2010. "Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications." Polymers 2, no. 4: 728-765.

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