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Polymers 2018, 10(9), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10091001

Detecting Glucose Levels in Blood Plasma and Artificial Tear by Au(I) Complex on the Carbopol Polymer: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Method

1
Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, No 70, LinShih Rd., Shih-Lin, Taipei 11102, Taiwan
2
Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
4
Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11102, Taiwan
5
Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, 80101, Joensuu, Finland
6
National Taiwan University, Department of Chemistry, Taipei 11102, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract

We report on a selective paper-based method and a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the detection of human plasma glucose and tear glucose using carbopol polymer-encapsulated Au(I) complex (AuC2C6H4OMe)2(Ph2P(C6H4)3PPh2), (B5). To the best of our knowledge, this demonstrates for the first time the glucose sensing based on dual emission, i.e., fluorescence and phosphorescence, of a single type molecule on the carbopol polymer. Upon addition of human blood treated with anticoagulants to μPADs, plasma is separated from the blood and flows into the response region of the μPADs to react with carbopol polymer-encapsulated B5, in which the ratiometric luminescence is analyzed. The plasma glucose concentration can be quantitively detected at 1.0–50.0 mM on paper, and tear glucose can be detected at 0.1–4.0 mM on μPADs. Owing to the structural design, this device has superior ratiometric changes of dual emission over other Au(I) complexes for signal transduction. The encapsulation of carbopol polymer also offers long-term storage stability. In tear measurement, carbopol polymer is not only used to encapsulate enzyme to remain the enzyme’s activity, but also played as a glue (or media) to connect microfluidic channel and response region. This further improves the sensitivity and limit of detection for glucose. Moreover, this sensor provides a faster response time, a wider range for glucose sensing than reported previously, and no statistical difference of the data from a commercial glucometer, allowing for practical diagnosis of diabetes and healthy individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood plasma glucose; tear glucose; carbopol polymer; diabetes; microfluid device; luminescent blood plasma glucose; tear glucose; carbopol polymer; diabetes; microfluid device; luminescent
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Luo, J.-J.; Pan, S.-W.; Yang, J.-H.; Chang, T.-L.; Lin, P.-Y.; Wu, C.-L.; Liu, W.-F.; Huang, X.-R.; Koshevoy, I.O.; Chou, P.-T.; Ho, M.-L. Detecting Glucose Levels in Blood Plasma and Artificial Tear by Au(I) Complex on the Carbopol Polymer: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Method. Polymers 2018, 10, 1001.

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