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Polymers 2018, 10(6), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060676

Critical Point Drying: An Effective Drying Method for Direct Measurement of the Surface Area of a Pretreated Cellulosic Biomass

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 32 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10326, Korea
2
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34129, Korea
3
Gwangju Bioenergy R&D Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 25 Samso-ro270beongil, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61003, Korea
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16227, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract

The surface area and pore size distribution of Eucalyptus samples that were pretreated by different methods were determined by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) technique. Three methods were applied to prepare cellulosic biomass samples for the BET measurements, air, freeze, and critical point drying (CPD). The air and freeze drying caused a severe collapse of the biomass pore structures, but the CPD effectively preserved the biomass morphology. The surface area of the CPD prepared Eucalyptus samples were determined to be 58–161 m2/g, whereas the air and freeze dried samples were 0.5–1.3 and 1.0–2.4 m2/g, respectively. The average pore diameter of the CPD prepared Eucalyptus samples were 61–70 Å. The CPD preserved the Eucalyptus sample morphology by replacing water with a non-polar solvent, CO2 fluid, which prevented hydrogen bond reformation in the cellulose. View Full-Text
Keywords: pretreated cellulosic biomass; critical point drying; surface area; pore size distribution; Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET); cellulose; hornification pretreated cellulosic biomass; critical point drying; surface area; pore size distribution; Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET); cellulose; hornification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kang, K.-Y.; Hwang, K.-R.; Park, J.-Y.; Lee, J.-P.; Kim, J.-S.; Lee, J.-S. Critical Point Drying: An Effective Drying Method for Direct Measurement of the Surface Area of a Pretreated Cellulosic Biomass. Polymers 2018, 10, 676.

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