Next Article in Journal
Hydrogels-Assisted Cell Engraftment for Repairing the Stroke-Damaged Brain: Chimera or Reality
Next Article in Special Issue
Modification of Alkali Lignin with Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Diglycidyl Ether to Be Used as a Thickener in Bio-Lubricant Formulations
Previous Article in Journal
Coordination Polymers Based on Phthalic Acid and Aminopyrazine Ligands: On the Importance of N–H···π Interactions
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020183

Carbon-Based Nanomaterials from Biopolymer Lignin via Catalytic Thermal Treatment at 700 to 1000 °C

1
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
3
Institute of Imaging and Analytical Technology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
4
Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin Polymers: Structures, Reactions and Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [8153 KB, uploaded 13 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

We report the preparation of carbon-based nanomaterials from biopolymer kraft lignin via an iron catalytic thermal treatment process. Both the carbonaceous gases and amorphous carbon (AC) from lignin thermal decomposition were found to have participated in the formation of graphitic-carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (GCEINs). GCEINs originating from carbonaceous gases have thick-walled graphitic-carbon layers (10 to 50) and form at a temperature of 700 °C. By contrast, GCEINs from AC usually have thin-walled graphitic-carbon layers (1 to 3) and form at a temperature of at least 800 °C. Iron catalyst nanoparticles started their phase transition from α-Fe to γ-Fe at 700 °C, and then from γ-Fe to Fe3C at 1000 °C. Furthermore, we derived a formula to calculate the maximum number of graphitic-carbon layers formed on iron nanoparticles via the AC dissolution-precipitation mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer; kraft lignin; graphitic-carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles; temperature; amorphous carbon; carbonaceous gases biopolymer; kraft lignin; graphitic-carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles; temperature; amorphous carbon; carbonaceous gases
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Yan, Q.; Li, J.; Chu, I.-W.; Toghiani, H.; Cai, Z.; Zhang, J. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials from Biopolymer Lignin via Catalytic Thermal Treatment at 700 to 1000 °C. Polymers 2018, 10, 183.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top