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Crystals 2018, 8(8), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8080327

Multiple Fault Location in a Photovoltaic Array Using Bidirectional Hetero-Associative Memory Network in Micro-Distribution Systems

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taiping District, Taichung City 41170, Taiwan
2
Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Cijin District, Kaohsiung City 80543, Taiwan
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kao-Yuan University, Lu-Chu District, Kaohsiung City 82151, Taiwan
4
Department of Maritime Information and Technology, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Cijin District, Kaohsiung City 80543, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract

In manual maintenance inspections of large-scaled photovoltaic (PV) or rooftop PV systems, several days are required to survey the entire PV field. To improve reliability and shorten the amount of time involved, this study proposes an electrical examination-based method for locating multiple faults in the PV array. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is used to estimate the maximum power of each PV panel; this is then compared with metering the output power of PV array. Power degradation indexes as input variables are parameterized to quantify the degradation between estimated maximum PV output power and metered PV output power, which can be categorized into normal condition, grounded faults, open-circuit faults, bridged faults, and mismatch faults. Bidirectional hetero-associative memory (BHAM) networks are then used to associate the inputs and locate multiple faults as output variables within the PV array. For a rooftop PV system with two strings, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model has computational efficiency in learning and detection accuracies for real-time applications, and that its algorithm is easily implemented in a mobile intelligent vehicle. View Full-Text
Keywords: rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system; maximum power point tracking (MPPT); power degradation index; bidirectional hetero-associative memory network (BHAM) rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system; maximum power point tracking (MPPT); power degradation index; bidirectional hetero-associative memory network (BHAM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chang, L.-Y.; Pai, N.-S.; Chou, M.-H.; Chen, J.-L.; Kuo, C.-L.; Lin, C.-H. Multiple Fault Location in a Photovoltaic Array Using Bidirectional Hetero-Associative Memory Network in Micro-Distribution Systems. Crystals 2018, 8, 327.

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