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Crystals 2018, 8(9), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8090343

Investigation of Approaches to Control the Compositions of Zn(Se,OH) Buffers Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Process for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) Solar Cells

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, No. 1, Section 2, University Road, ShouFeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
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Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 26 August 2018
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Abstract

We deposited zinc-based films with various ammonia (ammonium hydroxide; NH4OH) and selenourea concentrations, at the bath temperature of 80 °C, on soda-lime glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process. We analyzed the results using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed binding energies of zinc, selenium, and oxygen. The as-deposited films, containing zinc selenide, zinc oxide, and zinc hydroxide, were also verified. The films prepared in this investigation can be referred to a zinc compound, characterized as Zn(Se,OH). A conformal coverage of the Zn(Se,OH) films, with the smooth surface morphologies, was obtained by optimizing the ammonia or selenourea concentrations in the deposition solutions. The Zn(Se,OH) films had a preferred (111) orientation, corresponding to a cubic crystal structure. The bandgap energies of the as-deposited Zn(Se,OH) films were determined from the optical absorption data, suggesting a dependence of the bandgap energies on the atomic percentages of ZnSe, Zn(OH)2 and ZnO in the films. The same variation tendency of the compositions and the bandgap energies for the films, deposited with an increment in the ammonia or selenourea concentrations was achieved, attributing to the facilitation of ZnSe formation. These results show that the compositions, and therefore the bandgap energies, can be controlled by the ammonia concentrations, or selenourea concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical bath deposition; ZnSe; buffers; CIGS chemical bath deposition; ZnSe; buffers; CIGS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Huang, C.-H.; Jan, Y.-L.; Chuang, W.-J.; Lu, P.-T. Investigation of Approaches to Control the Compositions of Zn(Se,OH) Buffers Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Process for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) Solar Cells. Crystals 2018, 8, 343.

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