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Crystals 2017, 7(7), 190; doi:10.3390/cryst7070190

Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Surface-Induced Carbon and Nitrogen Fractionation during Diamond Crystallization at High Temperatures and High Pressures

1
Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2
Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich, Germany
3
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
4
Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility, Grant Institute of Earth Sciences, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK
5
Deutsches GeoForschungZentrum, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Cölfen
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diamond Crystals)
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Abstract

Isotopic and trace element variations within single diamond crystals are widely known from both natural stones and synthetic crystals. A number of processes can produce variations in carbon isotope composition and nitrogen abundance in the course of diamond crystallization. Here, we present evidence of carbon and nitrogen fractionation related to the growing surfaces of a diamond. We document that difference in the carbon isotope composition between cubic and octahedral growth sectors is solvent-dependent and varies from 0.7‰ in a carbonate system to 0.4‰ in a metal-carbon system. Ab initio calculations suggest up to 4‰ instantaneous 13C depletion of cubic faces in comparison to octahedral faces when grown simultaneously. Cubic growth sectors always have lower nitrogen abundance in comparison to octahedral sectors within synthetic diamond crystals in both carbonate and metal-carbon systems. The stability of any particular growth faces of a diamond crystal depends upon the degree of carbon association in the solution. Octahedron is the dominant form in a high-associated solution while the cube is the dominant form in a low-associated solution. Fine-scale data from natural crystals potentially can provide information on the form of carbon, which was present in the growth media. View Full-Text
Keywords: mixed-habit diamond crystallization; carbon isotopes; nitrogen impurity; fractionation; experiment; high pressure; high temperature; crystal chemistry; surface structure; SIMS mixed-habit diamond crystallization; carbon isotopes; nitrogen impurity; fractionation; experiment; high pressure; high temperature; crystal chemistry; surface structure; SIMS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Reutsky, V.N.; Kowalski, P.M.; Palyanov, Y.N.; EIMF; Wiedenbeck, M. Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Surface-Induced Carbon and Nitrogen Fractionation during Diamond Crystallization at High Temperatures and High Pressures. Crystals 2017, 7, 190.

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