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Crystals 2017, 7(6), 174; doi:10.3390/cryst7060174

Evolution in Time of Radiation Defects Induced by Negative Pions and Muons in Crystals with a Diamond Structure

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutsky lane 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Russia
Academic Editor: Yuri N. Palyanov
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diamond Crystals)
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Abstract

Evolution in time of radiation defects induced by negatively-charged pions and muons in crystals with diamond structures is considered. Negative pions and muons are captured by the nucleus and ionize an appropriate host atom, forming a positively-charged radiation defect in a lattice. As a result of an evolution in time, this radiation defect transforms into the acceptor center. An analysis of the full evolution process is considered for the first time. Formation of this acceptor center can be divided into three stages. At the first stage, the radiation defect interacts with a radiation trace and captures electrons. The radiation defect is neutralized completely in Si and Ge for a short time t 10 11 s, but in diamond, the complete neutralization time is very large t 10 6 s. At the second stage, broken chemical bonds of the radiation defect are restored. In Si and Ge, this process takes place for the neutral radiation defect, but in diamond, it goes for a positively-charged state. The characteristic time of this stage is t < 10 8 s for Si and Ge and t < 10 11 s for diamond. After the chemical bonds’ restoration, the positively-charged, but chemically-bound radiation defect in diamond is quickly neutralized because of the electron density redistribution. The neutralization process is characterized by the lattice relaxation time. At the third stage, a neutral chemically-bound radiation defect captures an additional electron to saturate all chemical bonds and forms an ionized acceptor center. The existence of a sufficiently big electric dipolar moment leads to the electron capture. Qualitative estimates for the time of this process were obtained for diamond, silicon and germanium crystals. It was sown that this time is the shortest for diamond (≤ 10 8 s) and the longest for silicon (≤ 10 7 s) View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation defect; acceptor; chemical bond; diamond lattice; pion; muon; electron capture radiation defect; acceptor; chemical bond; diamond lattice; pion; muon; electron capture
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Belousov, Y.M. Evolution in Time of Radiation Defects Induced by Negative Pions and Muons in Crystals with a Diamond Structure. Crystals 2017, 7, 174.

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