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Crystals 2017, 7(5), 127; doi:10.3390/cryst7050127

Crystallography and Growth of Epitaxial Oxide Films for Fundamental Studies of Cathode Materials Used in Advanced Li-Ion Batteries

1
Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
2
FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124, USA
3
Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Research Institute, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, India
4
Western Digital Corporation, 44100 Osgood Road, Fremont, CA 94539, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helmut Cölfen and Winnie Wong-Ng
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallography of Functional Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7796 KB, uploaded 8 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Li-ion battery systems, synthesized as epitaxial thin films, can provide powerful insights into their electrochemical processes. Crystallographic analysis shows that many important cathode oxides have an underlying similarity: their structures can be considered as different ordering schemes of Li and transition metal ions within a pseudo-cubic sublattice of oxygen anions arranged in a face-center cubic (FCC) fashion. This oxygen sublattice is compatible with SrTiO3 and similar perovskite oxides, thus perovskites can be used as supporting substrates for growing epitaxial cathode films. The predicted epitaxial growth and crystallographic relations were experimentally verified for different oxide films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on SrTiO3 or SrRuO3/SrTiO3 of different orientations. The results based on cross-sectional high-resolution TEM of the following films are presented in the paper: (a) trigonal LiCoO2; (b) orthorhombic LiMnO2; (c) monoclinic Li2MnO3; (d) compositionally-complex monoclinic Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2. All results demonstrated the feasibility of epitaxial growth for these materials, with the growth following the predicted cube-on-cube orientation relationship between the cubic and pseudo-cubic oxygen sublattices of a substrate and a film, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion battery; thin film; electrochemistry; epitaxy; transmission electron microscopy Li-ion battery; thin film; electrochemistry; epitaxy; transmission electron microscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bendersky, L.A.; Tan, H.; Bharathi Karuppanan, K.; Li, Z.-P.; Johnston-Peck, A.C. Crystallography and Growth of Epitaxial Oxide Films for Fundamental Studies of Cathode Materials Used in Advanced Li-Ion Batteries. Crystals 2017, 7, 127.

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