Crystals 2013, 3(3), 443-482; doi:10.3390/cryst3030443

High Birefringence Liquid Crystals

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Received: 28 June 2013; in revised form: 27 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Liquid Crystals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Liquid crystals, compounds and mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropies are reviewed. The mesogenic properties and physical chemical properties (viscosity, birefringence, refractive indices, dielectric anisotropy and elastic constants) of compounds being cyano, fluoro, isothiocyanato derivatives of biphenyl, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, tolane, phenyl tolane, phenyl ethynyl tolane, and biphenyl tolane are compared. The question of how to obtain liquid crystal with a broad range of nematic phases is discussed in detail. Influence of lateral substituent of different kinds of mesogenic and physicochemical properties is presented (demonstrated). Examples of mixtures with birefringence ∆n in the range of 0.2–0.5 are given.
Keywords: liquid crystal; cyanide; fluoride; isothiocyanate; biphenyl; tolane; terphenyl; quaterphenyl; high birefringence; positive dielectric anisotropy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dąbrowski, R.; Kula, P.; Herman, J. High Birefringence Liquid Crystals. Crystals 2013, 3, 443-482.

AMA Style

Dąbrowski R, Kula P, Herman J. High Birefringence Liquid Crystals. Crystals. 2013; 3(3):443-482.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dąbrowski, Roman; Kula, Przemysław; Herman, Jakub. 2013. "High Birefringence Liquid Crystals." Crystals 3, no. 3: 443-482.

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