Crystals 2011, 1(3), 195-205; doi:10.3390/cryst1030195
Article

Crystallization of Mefenamic Acid from Dimethylformamide Microemulsions: Obtaining Thermodynamic Control through 3D Nanoconfinement

Department of Chemistry, University Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2011; in revised form: 8 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
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Abstract: Recently we showed how crystallization in microemulsions could lead directly to the most stable polymorph, thereby leapfrogging Ostwald’s rule of stages. Here we consider in more details the crystallization of mefenamic acid from dimethylformamide microemulsions. Crystallization of mefenamic acid from bulk DMF has previously been shown to produce only the metastable Form II irrespective of the supersaturation or temperature. In contrast, we show that stable Form I can be produced from DMF microemulsions provided the lowest supersaturations that can achieve crystallization are used; these correspond to initial supersaturations that are significantly higher than those commonly used in bulk solution crystallizations, owing to the large decrease in supersaturation that occurs when a nuclei grows in a 3D-nanoconfined droplet. Increasing the supersaturation above the minimum required for crystallization leads to increasing proportions of metastable Form II crystals. In compositions crystallizing a mixture of Form I and Form II crystals, the Form I crystals can nevertheless be obtained exclusively by slowly heating the microemulsions.
Keywords: mefenamic acid; crystallization; polymorph; microemulsion; thermodynamic control

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nicholson, C.E.; Cooper, S.J. Crystallization of Mefenamic Acid from Dimethylformamide Microemulsions: Obtaining Thermodynamic Control through 3D Nanoconfinement. Crystals 2011, 1, 195-205.

AMA Style

Nicholson CE, Cooper SJ. Crystallization of Mefenamic Acid from Dimethylformamide Microemulsions: Obtaining Thermodynamic Control through 3D Nanoconfinement. Crystals. 2011; 1(3):195-205.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nicholson, Catherine E.; Cooper, Sharon J. 2011. "Crystallization of Mefenamic Acid from Dimethylformamide Microemulsions: Obtaining Thermodynamic Control through 3D Nanoconfinement." Crystals 1, no. 3: 195-205.

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