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Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes
Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, University of Antwerp (UA), Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
Flemish Institute for Technology Research, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Abstract: Analysis methods that require small volumes of aqueous samples can be of large benefit for applications when expensive chemicals are involved or available volumes are substantially small and concentrations are low. A new method is presented to allow microvolume liquid injections on TOC equipment using a special designed Shimadzu gas injection kit® in combination with a high precision syringe and Chaney adapter. Next to details on the methodology of microvolume TOC injections, the technique is shown to be beneficial to evaluate the efficiency of photocatalytic dye degradation on titania materials in terms of CO2 conversion simultaneously with classic UV-Vis analysis measurements within a lab scale photocatalytic test setup (volume <100 mL). The possibility to allow multiple microvolume samplings in short time intervals during several hours without a substantial decrease in volume/catalyst ratio is of particular value for the evaluation of photocatalysts. By combining both techniques at short time intervals, additional knowledge of the degradation process/mechanism, kinetics and the efficiency can be obtained in a direct way. Moreover, the developed μV-TOC analysis is specifically useful in those applications in which low sample volumes in combination with low concentrations are involved. For example, μV-TOC can similarly be put into service in a wide range of small volume setups, e.g., analytes from high-throughput screening, pharmaceutical applications and other advanced oxidation processes that formally could not be analyzed due to limited sample volumes and often low concentrations.
Keywords: microvolume analysis; total organic carbon; AOP; photocatalysis
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kus, M.; Ribbens, S.; Meynen, V.; Cool, P. Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes. Catalysts 2013, 3, 74-87.
Kus M, Ribbens S, Meynen V, Cool P. Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes. Catalysts. 2013; 3(1):74-87.
Kus, Monika; Ribbens, Stefan; Meynen, Vera; Cool, Pegie. 2013. "Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes." Catalysts 3, no. 1: 74-87.