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Catalysts 2013, 3(1), 74-87; doi:10.3390/catal3010074
Article

Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes

1
, 1
, 1,2
 and 1,*
Received: 21 November 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalysts)
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Abstract: Analysis methods that require small volumes of aqueous samples can be of large benefit for applications when expensive chemicals are involved or available volumes are substantially small and concentrations are low. A new method is presented to allow microvolume liquid injections on TOC equipment using a special designed Shimadzu gas injection kit® in combination with a high precision syringe and Chaney adapter. Next to details on the methodology of microvolume TOC injections, the technique is shown to be beneficial to evaluate the efficiency of photocatalytic dye degradation on titania materials in terms of CO2 conversion simultaneously with classic UV-Vis analysis measurements within a lab scale photocatalytic test setup (volume <100 mL). The possibility to allow multiple microvolume samplings in short time intervals during several hours without a substantial decrease in volume/catalyst ratio is of particular value for the evaluation of photocatalysts. By combining both techniques at short time intervals, additional knowledge of the degradation process/mechanism, kinetics and the efficiency can be obtained in a direct way. Moreover, the developed μV-TOC analysis is specifically useful in those applications in which low sample volumes in combination with low concentrations are involved. For example, μV-TOC can similarly be put into service in a wide range of small volume setups, e.g., analytes from high-throughput screening, pharmaceutical applications and other advanced oxidation processes that formally could not be analyzed due to limited sample volumes and often low concentrations.
Keywords: microvolume analysis; total organic carbon; AOP; photocatalysis microvolume analysis; total organic carbon; AOP; photocatalysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kus, M.; Ribbens, S.; Meynen, V.; Cool, P. Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes. Catalysts 2013, 3, 74-87.

AMA Style

Kus M, Ribbens S, Meynen V, Cool P. Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes. Catalysts. 2013; 3(1):74-87.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kus, Monika; Ribbens, Stefan; Meynen, Vera; Cool, Pegie. 2013. "Microvolume TOC Analysis as Useful Tool in the Evaluation of Lab Scale Photocatalytic Processes." Catalysts 3, no. 1: 74-87.


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