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Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review
Research Organization for University–Community Collaborations, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan
Faculty of Chemistry, Vietnam National University, 19 Le Thanh Tong St., Hanoi, Vietnam
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2012; in revised form: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Abstract: More than 10 million tons of biodiesel fuel (BDF) have been produced in the world from the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol by using acid catalysts (sulfuric acid, H2SO4), alkaline catalysts (sodium hydroxide, NaOH or potassium hydroxide, KOH), solid catalysts and enzymes. Unfortunately, the price of BDF is still more expensive than that of petro diesel fuel due to the lack of a suitable raw material oil. Here, we review the best selection of BDF production systems including raw materials, catalysts and production technologies. In addition, glycerol formed as a by-product needs to be converted to useful chemicals to reduce the amount of glycerol waste. With this in mind, we have also reviewed some recent studies on the utilization of glycerol.
Keywords: biodiesel; vegetable oils; catalyst; esterification; transesterification; fuel cell; utilization of glycerol
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MDPI and ACS Style
Thanh, L.T.; Okitsu, K.; Boi, L.V.; Maeda, Y. Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review. Catalysts 2012, 2, 191-222.
Thanh LT, Okitsu K, Boi LV, Maeda Y. Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review. Catalysts. 2012; 2(1):191-222.
Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Boi, Luu Van; Maeda, Yasuaki. 2012. "Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review." Catalysts 2, no. 1: 191-222.