Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Catalysts 2012, 2(1), 171-190; doi:10.3390/catal2010171
Article

Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite

* ,
,
,
 and
Received: 1 December 2011; in revised form: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [408 KB, updated 24 February 2012; original version uploaded 14 February 2012]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil) was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), and H2/oil ratio were 350 °C, 2 MPa, 15.2 h–1, and 400 mL/mL, respectively. Both the free fatty acids and the triglycerides in the waste cooking oil were deoxygenated at the same time to form hydrocarbons in the hydrotreatment process. The predominant liquid hydrocarbon products (98.9 wt%) were n-C18H38, n-C17H36, n-C16H34, and n-C15H32 when a Ru/SiO2 catalyst was used. These long chain normal hydrocarbons had high melting points and gave the liquid hydrocarbon product over Ru/SiO2 a high pour point of 20 °C. Ru/H-Y was not suitable for producing diesel from waste cooking oil because it formed a large amount of C5–C10 gasoline-ranged paraffins on the strong acid sites of HY. When Al-polyoxocation-pillared montmorillonite (Al13-Mont) was used as a support for the Ru catalyst, the pour point of the liquid hydrocarbon product decreased to −15 °C with the conversion of a significant amount of C15–C18 n-paraffins to iso-paraffins and light paraffins on the weak acid sites of Al13-Mont. The liquid product over Ru/Al13-Mont can be expected to give a green diesel for current diesel engines because its chemical composition and physical properties are similar to those of commercial petro-diesel. A relatively large amount of H2 was consumed in the hydrogenation of unsaturated C=C bonds and the deoxygenation of C=O bonds in the hydrotreatment process. A sulfided Ni-Mo/Al13-Mont catalyst also produced bio-hydrogenated diesel by the hydrotreatment process but it showed slow deactivation during the reaction due to loss of sulfur. In contrast, Ru/Al13-Mont did not show catalyst deactivation in the hydrotreatment of waste cooking oil after 72 h on-stream because the waste cooking oil was not found to contain sulfur-containing compounds.
Keywords: bio-hydrogenated diesel; waste cooking oil; hydrotreatment; ruthenium; Al-polyoxocation; pillared montmorillonite bio-hydrogenated diesel; waste cooking oil; hydrotreatment; ruthenium; Al-polyoxocation; pillared montmorillonite
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Sotelo-Boyás, R.; Murata, K.; Minowa, T.; Sakanishi, K. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite. Catalysts 2012, 2, 171-190.

AMA Style

Liu Y, Sotelo-Boyás R, Murata K, Minowa T, Sakanishi K. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite. Catalysts. 2012; 2(1):171-190.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yanyong; Sotelo-Boyás, Rogelio; Murata, Kazuhisa; Minowa, Tomoaki; Sakanishi, Kinya. 2012. "Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite." Catalysts 2, no. 1: 171-190.


Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert