Catalysts 2012, 2(1), 171-190; doi:10.3390/catal2010171
Article

Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite

Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Center 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan Current address: Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico ESIQIE, Mexico D.F. 07738, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2011; in revised form: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Biomass Conversion)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [408 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 24 February 2012 16:53 CET]
The original version is still available [407 KB, uploaded 14 February 2012 11:51 CET]
Abstract: Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil) was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), and H2/oil ratio were 350 °C, 2 MPa, 15.2 h–1, and 400 mL/mL, respectively. Both the free fatty acids and the triglycerides in the waste cooking oil were deoxygenated at the same time to form hydrocarbons in the hydrotreatment process. The predominant liquid hydrocarbon products (98.9 wt%) were n-C18H38, n-C17H36, n-C16H34, and n-C15H32 when a Ru/SiO2 catalyst was used. These long chain normal hydrocarbons had high melting points and gave the liquid hydrocarbon product over Ru/SiO2 a high pour point of 20 °C. Ru/H-Y was not suitable for producing diesel from waste cooking oil because it formed a large amount of C5–C10 gasoline-ranged paraffins on the strong acid sites of HY. When Al-polyoxocation-pillared montmorillonite (Al13-Mont) was used as a support for the Ru catalyst, the pour point of the liquid hydrocarbon product decreased to −15 °C with the conversion of a significant amount of C15–C18 n-paraffins to iso-paraffins and light paraffins on the weak acid sites of Al13-Mont. The liquid product over Ru/Al13-Mont can be expected to give a green diesel for current diesel engines because its chemical composition and physical properties are similar to those of commercial petro-diesel. A relatively large amount of H2 was consumed in the hydrogenation of unsaturated C=C bonds and the deoxygenation of C=O bonds in the hydrotreatment process. A sulfided Ni-Mo/Al13-Mont catalyst also produced bio-hydrogenated diesel by the hydrotreatment process but it showed slow deactivation during the reaction due to loss of sulfur. In contrast, Ru/Al13-Mont did not show catalyst deactivation in the hydrotreatment of waste cooking oil after 72 h on-stream because the waste cooking oil was not found to contain sulfur-containing compounds.
Keywords: bio-hydrogenated diesel; waste cooking oil; hydrotreatment; ruthenium; Al-polyoxocation; pillared montmorillonite

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Sotelo-Boyás, R.; Murata, K.; Minowa, T.; Sakanishi, K. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite. Catalysts 2012, 2, 171-190.

AMA Style

Liu Y, Sotelo-Boyás R, Murata K, Minowa T, Sakanishi K. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite. Catalysts. 2012; 2(1):171-190.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yanyong; Sotelo-Boyás, Rogelio; Murata, Kazuhisa; Minowa, Tomoaki; Sakanishi, Kinya. 2012. "Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite." Catalysts 2, no. 1: 171-190.

Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert