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Cancers 2016, 8(4), 38; doi:10.3390/cancers8040038

Differential miRNA-Expression as an Adjunctive Diagnostic Tool in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

1
Group Practice of Pathology, 65199 Wiesbaden, Germany
2
Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Hospital (HSK), 65199 Wiesbaden, Germany
3
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Hospital (HSK), 65199 Wiesbaden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles Lawrie
Received: 4 October 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
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Abstract

Pulmonary malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation represent a rare subclass of lung carcinomas, which vary in the extent of differentiation and grade of biological aggressiveness. In particular, neuroendocrine tumors are classified into well differentiated typical and atypical carcinoids as well as poorly differentiated large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas. Tiny MicroRNAs have been identified as reliable classifiers in distinct cancer types and seem to play important roles in cellular processes like regulation of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study, two different microRNAs (miR-21 and miR-34a) were explored for their involvements in pathogenesis of subtypes and finally in differential diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. miR-21 was upregulated in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (mean rank: 26.8; 28.75) as compared to carcinoids (mean rank: 12.33; 12.07) with a significance of 0.00033. High-expression levels of miR-34a were associated with atypical carcinoids (p = 0.010). A close association is implicated between the elevated miR-21 values in high-grade and miR-34a patterns in low-grade atypical neuroendocrine lung carcinomas, which could potentially be exploited as practical supportive markers for differential lung cancer diagnosis in routine. However, some additional extended research and validation studies are needed to utilize them as routine markers or potential molecular targets for personalized medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: carcinoids; LCNEC; SCLC; miRNAs; Q-PCR carcinoids; LCNEC; SCLC; miRNAs; Q-PCR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Demes, M.; Aszyk, C.; Bartsch, H.; Schirren, J.; Fisseler-Eckhoff, A. Differential miRNA-Expression as an Adjunctive Diagnostic Tool in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung. Cancers 2016, 8, 38.

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