Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Mreg Activity in Tumor Response to Photodynamic Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy-Generated Cancer Vaccines
Previous Article in Journal
Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Boosting Tumor-Specific Immunity Using PDT
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2016, 8(10), 93; doi:10.3390/cancers8100093

Hypericin in the Dark: Foe or Ally in Photodynamic Therapy?

1
Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, PJ Safarik University in Kosice, Kosice 040 01, Slovakia
2
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, PJ Safarik University in Kosice, Kosice 040 01, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael R. Hamblin
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 4 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Cancer Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [950 KB, uploaded 14 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Photosensitizers (PSs) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) are, in most cases, administered systemically with preferential accumulation in malignant tissues; however, exposure of non-malignant tissues to PS may also be clinically relevant, when PS molecules affect the pro-apoptotic cascade without illumination. Hypericin (Hyp) as PS and its derivatives have long been studied, regarding their photodynamic and photocytotoxic characteristics. Hyp and its derivatives have displayed light-activated antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in many tumor cell lines without cytotoxicity in the dark. However, light-independent effects of Hyp have emerged. Contrary to the acclaimed Hyp minimal dark cytotoxicity and preferential accumulation in tumor cells, it was recently been shown that non-malignant and malignant cells uptake Hyp at a similar level. In addition, Hyp has displayed light-independent toxicity and anti-proliferative effects in a wide range of concentrations. There are multiple mechanisms underlying Hyp light-independent effects, and we are still missing many details about them. In this paper, we focus on Hyp light-independent effects at several sub-cellular levels—protein distribution and synthesis, organelle ultrastructure and function, and Hyp light-independent effects regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS). We summarize work from our laboratories and that of others to reveal an intricate network of the Hyp light-independent effects. We propose a schematic model of pro- and anti-apoptotic protein dynamics between cell organelles due to Hyp presence without illumination. Based on our model, Hyp can be explored as an adjuvant therapeutic drug in combination with chemo- or radiation cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypericin; PKC; Bcl2; BAX; oxidative stress; glioma cells; endothelial cells; cancer hypericin; PKC; Bcl2; BAX; oxidative stress; glioma cells; endothelial cells; cancer
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huntosova, V.; Stroffekova, K. Hypericin in the Dark: Foe or Ally in Photodynamic Therapy? Cancers 2016, 8, 93.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top