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Cancers 2015, 7(4), 2054-2062; doi:10.3390/cancers7040876

Direct Interaction between Carcinoma Cells and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts for the Regulation of Cancer Invasion

1
Division of Refractory and Advanced Cancer, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
2
Department of Biochemistry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huey-Jen Lin
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [666 KB, uploaded 14 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

The tumor stroma acts as an essential microenvironment of the cancer cells, which includes many different types of non-cancerous cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Stromal fibroblasts (SFs) are the major cellular constituents of the tumor stroma and are often called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). They are often characterized by α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression, which is indicative of the myofibroblast phenotype and strong contractility. These characteristics contribute to the remodeling and stiffening of the stromal ECM, thereby offering an appropriate field for cancer cell invasion. Importance of the tumor stroma in cancer progression has recently been highlighted. Moreover, several reports suggest that stromal fibroblasts interact with adjacent cancer cells through soluble factors, exosomes, or direct cell-cell adhesion to promote cancer cell invasion. In this review, current models of the regulation of cancer cell invasion by surrounding fibroblasts are summarized, including our recent work on the interaction between stromal fibroblasts and scirrhous gastric carcinoma (SGC) cells by using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Further mechanistic insights into the roles of the interaction between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts in cancer invasion will be required to identify novel molecular targets for preventing cancer cell invasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts; cancer invasion; scirrhous gastric carcinoma; peritoneal dissemination cancer-associated fibroblasts; cancer invasion; scirrhous gastric carcinoma; peritoneal dissemination
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yamaguchi, H.; Sakai, R. Direct Interaction between Carcinoma Cells and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts for the Regulation of Cancer Invasion. Cancers 2015, 7, 2054-2062.

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