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Cancers 2015, 7(4), 1994-2011; doi:10.3390/cancers7040872

The Mesothelial Origin of Carcinoma Associated-Fibroblasts in Peritoneal Metastasis

1
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento de Oncología, Hospital de la Zarzuela, 28023 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huey-Jen Lin
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [655 KB, uploaded 29 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Solid tumors are complex and unstructured organs that, in addition to cancer cells, also contain other cell types. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent an important population in the tumor microenviroment and participate in several stages of tumor progression, including cancer cell migration/invasion and metastasis. During peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, such as ovarian or gastrointestinal, disseminate through the peritoneal fluid and colonize the peritoneum. Tumor cells metastasize by attaching to and invading through the mesothelial cell (MC) monolayer that lines the peritoneal cavity, then colonizing the submesothelial compact zone where CAFs accumulate. CAFs may derive from different sources depending on the surrounding metastatic niche. In peritoneal metastasis, a sizeable subpopulation of CAFs originates from MCs through a mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT), which promotes adhesion, invasion, vascularization and subsequent tumor growth. The bidirectional communication between cancer cells and MC-derived CAFs via secretion of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix components seems to be crucial for the establishment and progression of the metastasis in the peritoneum. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of novel advances in understanding how peritoneal CAFs provide cancer cells with a supportive microenvironment, as well as the development of future therapeutic approaches by interfering with the MMT in the peritoneum. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition; carcinoma-associated fibroblasts; peritoneal metastasis; mesothelial cells; therapeutic strategies mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition; carcinoma-associated fibroblasts; peritoneal metastasis; mesothelial cells; therapeutic strategies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rynne-Vidal, A.; Jiménez-Heffernan, J.A.; Fernández-Chacón, C.; López-Cabrera, M.; Sandoval, P. The Mesothelial Origin of Carcinoma Associated-Fibroblasts in Peritoneal Metastasis. Cancers 2015, 7, 1994-2011.

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