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Cancers 2015, 7(2), 795-810; doi:10.3390/cancers7020795

An Analytical Model of Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose for Passively-Scattered Proton Radiotherapy and Validation with Measurements

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
2
Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809, USA
3
Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Service de Dosimétrie Externe, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaodong Zhang
Received: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
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Abstract

Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference). Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference). The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation. View Full-Text
Keywords: proton therapy; neutron equivalent dose; analytical model proton therapy; neutron equivalent dose; analytical model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schneider, C.; Newhauser, W.; Farah, J. An Analytical Model of Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose for Passively-Scattered Proton Radiotherapy and Validation with Measurements. Cancers 2015, 7, 795-810.

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