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Cancers 2015, 7(2), 538-555; doi:10.3390/cancers7020538

Glioblastoma: Molecular Pathways, Stem Cells and Therapeutic Targets

Department of Neurosurgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brigitta G. Baumert
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
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Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO-defined Grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and aggressive CNS malignancy. Despite current treatment modalities, the survival time remains dismal. The main cause of mortality in patients with this disease is reoccurrence of the malignancy, which is attributed to treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within and surrounding the primary tumor. Inclusion of novel therapies, such as immuno- and DNA-based therapy, may provide better means of treating GBM. Furthermore, manipulation of recently discovered non-coding microRNAs, some of which regulate tumor growth through the development and maintenance of GBM stem cells, could provide new prospective therapies. Studies conducted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) also demonstrate the role of molecular pathways, specifically the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in GBM tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the aforementioned pathway may provide a more direct and targeted method to GBM treatment. The combination of these treatment modalities may provide an innovative therapeutic approach for the management of GBM. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain tumors; GBM; cancer stem cells; mTOR; therapies brain tumors; GBM; cancer stem cells; mTOR; therapies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jhanwar-Uniyal, M.; Labagnara, M.; Friedman, M.; Kwasnicki, A.; Murali, R. Glioblastoma: Molecular Pathways, Stem Cells and Therapeutic Targets. Cancers 2015, 7, 538-555.

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