Cancers 2014, 6(3), 1328-1350; doi:10.3390/cancers6031328
Review

Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

1email and 2,* email
Received: 10 April 2014; in revised form: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Merkel Cell Carcinoma)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.
Keywords: immunocompromised patients; immunosuppression; Merkel cell carcinoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, J.E.; Brewer, J.D. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients. Cancers 2014, 6, 1328-1350.

AMA Style

Ma JE, Brewer JD. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients. Cancers. 2014; 6(3):1328-1350.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Janice E.; Brewer, Jerry D. 2014. "Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients." Cancers 6, no. 3: 1328-1350.

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