Next Article in Journal
Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations
Next Article in Special Issue
Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication
Previous Article in Journal
Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Natural Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer Progression
Previous Article in Special Issue
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus: Molecular Insights into the Most Recently Discovered Human Tumour Virus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2014, 6(3), 1328-1350; doi:10.3390/cancers6031328

Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

1
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
2
Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Merkel Cell Carcinoma)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [785 KB, uploaded 27 June 2014]

Abstract

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.
Keywords: immunocompromised patients; immunosuppression; Merkel cell carcinoma immunocompromised patients; immunosuppression; Merkel cell carcinoma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, J.E.; Brewer, J.D. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients. Cancers 2014, 6, 1328-1350.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top