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Immune Regulatory Activity of Vitamin D3 in Head and Neck Cancer
Research Service, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401, USA
Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2013; in revised form: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 July 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Abstract: While vitamin D exhibits a multitude of cellular effects that can impact on cancer development and progression, this review focuses on its immune modulatory effects. These immune modulatory effects can be both direct and indirect. Compared to other cancer types, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have received less attention, but are a fascination immunologically because of the profound extent to which they inhibit immune defenses. This review describes the mechanisms of some of these immune inhibitory processes and how vitamin D can help overcome aspects of this immune suppression.
Keywords: head and neck cancer; HNSCC; immune modulation; immune suppression; suppressor cells; vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style
Young, M.R.I.; Day, T.A. Immune Regulatory Activity of Vitamin D3 in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancers 2013, 5, 1072-1085.
Young MRI, Day TA. Immune Regulatory Activity of Vitamin D3 in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancers. 2013; 5(3):1072-1085.
Young, M. R.I.; Day, Terry A. 2013. "Immune Regulatory Activity of Vitamin D3 in Head and Neck Cancer." Cancers 5, no. 3: 1072-1085.