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RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis
Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1RL, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2012; in revised form: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of male cancer deaths in the developed world. The current lack of highly specific detection methods and efficient therapeutic agents for advanced disease have been identified as problems requiring further research. The integrins play a vital role in the cross-talk between the cell and extracellular matrix, enhancing the growth, migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Progression and metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with changes in integrin expression, notably abnormal expression and activation of the β3 integrins in tumour cells, which promotes haematogenous spread and tumour growth in bone. As such, influencing integrin cell expression and function using targeted therapeutics represents a potential treatment for bone metastasis, the most common and debilitating complication of advanced prostate cancer. In this review, we highlight the multiple ways in which RGD-binding integrins contribute to prostate cancer progression and metastasis, and identify the rationale for development of multi-integrin antagonists targeting the RGD-binding subfamily as molecularly targeted agents for its treatment.
Keywords: integrin; RGD; prostate carcinoma; bone metastasis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sutherland, M.; Gordon, A.; Shnyder, S.D.; Patterson, L.H.; Sheldrake, H.M. RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis. Cancers 2012, 4, 1106-1145.
Sutherland M, Gordon A, Shnyder SD, Patterson LH, Sheldrake HM. RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis. Cancers. 2012; 4(4):1106-1145.
Sutherland, Mark; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Sheldrake, Helen M. 2012. "RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis." Cancers 4, no. 4: 1106-1145.