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Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3610-3631; doi:10.3390/cancers3033610
Review

Strategies To Assess Hypoxic/HIF-1-Active Cancer Cells for the Development of Innovative Radiation Therapy

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Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation and Cancers)
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Abstract

Local tumor recurrence and distant tumor metastasis frequently occur after radiation therapy and result in the death of cancer patients. These problems are caused, at least in part, by a tumor-specific oxygen-poor microenvironment, hypoxia. Oxygen-deprivation is known to inhibit the chemical ionization of both intracellular macro-molecules and water, etc., and thus reduce the cytotoxic effects of radiation. Moreover, DNA damage produced by free radicals is known to be more repairable under hypoxia than normoxia. Hypoxia is also known to induce biological tumor radioresistance through the activation of a transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Several potential strategies have been devised in radiation therapy to overcome these problems; however, they have not yet achieved a complete remission. It is essential to reveal the intratumoral localization and dynamics of hypoxic/HIF-1-active tumor cells during tumor growth and after radiation therapy, then exploit the information to develop innovative therapeutic strategies, and finally damage radioresistant cells. In this review, we overview problems caused by hypoxia/HIF-1-active cells in radiation therapy for cancer and introduce strategies to assess intratumoral hypoxia/HIF-1 activity.
Keywords: radiation therapy; tumor hypoxia; radioresistance; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1); molecular imaging radiation therapy; tumor hypoxia; radioresistance; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1); molecular imaging
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Yeom, C.J.; Zeng, L.; Zhu, Y.; Hiraoka, M.; Harada, H. Strategies To Assess Hypoxic/HIF-1-Active Cancer Cells for the Development of Innovative Radiation Therapy. Cancers 2011, 3, 3610-3631.

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