Cancers 2010, 2(3), 1441-1452; doi:10.3390/cancers2031441
Review

Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

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Received: 3 June 2010; in revised form: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients.
Keywords: HCC; cell cocktail; orthotopic models; liver vasculature; CEUS; PET; MRI; histology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bagi, C.M.; Andresen, C.J. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy. Cancers 2010, 2, 1441-1452.

AMA Style

Bagi CM, Andresen CJ. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy. Cancers. 2010; 2(3):1441-1452.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bagi, Cedo M.; Andresen, Catharine J. 2010. "Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy." Cancers 2, no. 3: 1441-1452.

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