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Toxins 2017, 9(9), 292; doi:10.3390/toxins9090292

New Insights into the Genome Organization of Yeast Killer Viruses Based on “Atypical” Killer Strains Characterized by High-Throughput Sequencing

1
Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas (Área de Microbiología, Antiguo Rectorado), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071, Spain
2
Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Ecología y Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071, Spain
3
Biotechvana, Parc Científic, Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán 2, Paterna 46980 (València), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manfred J. Schmitt
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Killer Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1870 KB, uploaded 19 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed. The few discrepancies between viral variants were mostly located around the central poly(A) region. A continuous sequence of the ScV-M2 genome was obtained for the first time. M1 virus was found for the first time in wine yeasts, coexisting with Mbarr-1 virus in T. delbrueckii. Extra 5′- and 3′-sequences were found in all M-genomes. The presence of repeated short sequences in the non-coding 3′-region of most M-genomes indicates that they have a common phylogenetic origin. High identity between amino acid sequences of killer toxins and some unclassified proteins of yeast, bacteria, and wine grapes suggests that killer viruses recruited some sequences from the genome of these organisms, or vice versa, during evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Torulaspora delbrueckii; killer; virus genome; dsRNA; sequencing; HTS; RNA recombination; phylogenetic origin Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Torulaspora delbrueckii; killer; virus genome; dsRNA; sequencing; HTS; RNA recombination; phylogenetic origin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramírez, M.; Velázquez, R.; López-Piñeiro, A.; Naranjo, B.; Roig, F.; Llorens, C. New Insights into the Genome Organization of Yeast Killer Viruses Based on “Atypical” Killer Strains Characterized by High-Throughput Sequencing. Toxins 2017, 9, 292.

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