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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 200; doi:10.3390/toxins9070200

Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China

1
Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, No. 9 Middle Road of Shuguanghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China
2
Risk Assessment Laboratory for Agro-Products, Ministry of Agriculture, No. 9 Middle Road of Shuguanghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China
3
Food Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg−1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2–4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; Alternaria toxins; dried fruits; UPLC-MS/MS; China mycotoxins; Alternaria toxins; dried fruits; UPLC-MS/MS; China
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Wei, D.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, D.; Feng, X.; Li, J.; Wang, M. Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China. Toxins 2017, 9, 200.

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