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Toxins 2017, 9(4), 139; doi:10.3390/toxins9040139

Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity and the Entomocidal Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Algeria

1
Microbiology Group, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32, EL ALIA, Bab Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers, Algeria
2
ERI BIOTECMED and Department of Genetics, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner, 50, BURJASSOT, 46100 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, University Dr Yahia Frès, 26000 Médéa, Algeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture)
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Abstract

This work represents the first initiative to analyze the distribution of B. thuringiensis in Algeria and to evaluate the biological potential of the isolates. A total of 157 isolates were recovered, with at least one isolate in 94.4% of the samples. The highest Bt index was found in samples from rhizospheric soil (0.48) and from the Mediterranean area (0.44). Most isolates showed antifungal activity (98.5%), in contrast to the few that had antibacterial activity (29.9%). A high genetic diversity was made evident by the finding of many different crystal shapes and various combinations of shapes within a single isolate (in 58.4% of the isolates). Also, over 50% of the isolates harbored cry1, cry2, or cry9 genes, and 69.3% contained a vip3 gene. A good correlation between the presence of chitinase genes and antifungal activity was observed. More than half of the isolates with a broad spectrum of antifungal activity harbored both endochitinase and exochitinase genes. Interestingly, 15 isolates contained the two chitinase genes and all of the above cry family genes, with some of them harboring a vip3 gene as well. The combination of this large number of genes coding for entomopathogenic proteins suggests a putative wide range of entomotoxic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: B. thuringiensis; antibacterial; antifungal; cry; vip3; chitinase; biocontrol B. thuringiensis; antibacterial; antifungal; cry; vip3; chitinase; biocontrol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Djenane, Z.; Nateche, F.; Amziane, M.; Gomis-Cebolla, J.; El-Aichar, F.; Khorf, H.; Ferré, J. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity and the Entomocidal Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Algeria. Toxins 2017, 9, 139.

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