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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 52; doi:10.3390/toxins9020052

p-Cresyl Sulfate

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Division, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Laboratory for Bacteriology Research, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology & Immunology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joachim Jankowski
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Abstract

If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: p-cresyl sulfate; intestinal microbiota; chronic kidney disease p-cresyl sulfate; intestinal microbiota; chronic kidney disease
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Gryp, T.; Vanholder, R.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Glorieux, G. p-Cresyl Sulfate. Toxins 2017, 9, 52.

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