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Toxins 2016, 8(7), 227; doi:10.3390/toxins8070227

Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens

1
Servicio de Microbiología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña-INIBIC, A Coruña 15006, Spain
2
Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI), Seville 41071, Spain
3
Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, México
4
Department of Chemical Engineering Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 PA, USA
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 PA, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anton Meinhart
Received: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antitoxin System in Bacteria)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1155 KB, uploaded 20 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are prevalent in bacteria and archaea. Although not essential for normal cell growth, TA systems are implicated in multiple cellular functions associated with survival under stress conditions. Clinical strains of bacteria are currently causing major human health problems as a result of their multidrug resistance, persistence and strong pathogenicity. Here, we present a review of the TA systems described to date and their biological role in human pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) and others of clinical relevance (Escherichia coli, Burkholderia spp., Streptococcus spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of TA systems will enable the development of new lines of treatment for infections caused by the above-mentioned pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: clinical; pathogens; Toxin-Antitoxin; plasmids; chromosome; resistance; persistance; virulence clinical; pathogens; Toxin-Antitoxin; plasmids; chromosome; resistance; persistance; virulence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-García, L.; Blasco, L.; Lopez, M.; Bou, G.; García-Contreras, R.; Wood, T.; Tomas, M. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clinical Pathogens. Toxins 2016, 8, 227.

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