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Toxins 2016, 8(6), 175; doi:10.3390/toxins8060175

Evaluation of the Impact of Mild Steaming and Heat Treatment on the Concentration of Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-2 and Dinophysistoxin-3 in Mussels

1
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Campus de Lugo, USC, Lugo 27002, Spain
2
Laboratorio CIFGA S.A., Plaza de Santo Domingo 20 5a planta, Lugo 27001, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose M. Eirin-Lopez
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

This study explores the effect of laboratory and industrial steaming on mussels with toxin concentrations above and below the legal limit. We used mild conditions for steaming, 100 °C for 5 min in industrial processing, and up to 20 min in small-scale laboratory steaming. Also, we studied the effect of heat on the toxin concentration of mussels obtained from two different locations and the effect of heat on the levels of dinophysistoxins 3 (DTX3) in both the mussel matrix and in pure form (7-O-palmitoyl okadaic ester and 7-O-palmytoleyl okadaic ester). The results show that the loss of water due to steaming was very small with a maximum of 9.5%, that the toxin content remained unchanged with no concentration effect or increase in toxicity, and that dinophysistoxins 3 was hydrolyzed or degraded to a certain extent under heat treatment. The use of liquid-certified matrix showed a 55% decrease of dinophysistoxins 3 after 10 min steaming, and a 50% reduction in total toxicity after treatment with an autoclave (121 °C for 20 min). View Full-Text
Keywords: steaming; dinophysistoxin; okadaic acid; mass spectrometry steaming; dinophysistoxin; okadaic acid; mass spectrometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez, I.; Alfonso, A.; Antelo, A.; Alvarez, M.; Botana, L.M. Evaluation of the Impact of Mild Steaming and Heat Treatment on the Concentration of Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-2 and Dinophysistoxin-3 in Mussels. Toxins 2016, 8, 175.

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