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Toxins 2016, 8(4), 111; doi:10.3390/toxins8040111

Ochratoxin A: Molecular Interactions, Mechanisms of Toxicity and Prevention at the Molecular Level

1
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
2
János Szentágothai Research Center, Lab-on-a-chip Research Group, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
3
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Toxicology Section, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Richard A. Manderville and Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
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Abstract

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely-spread mycotoxin all over the world causing major health risks. The focus of the present review is on the molecular and cellular interactions of OTA. In order to get better insight into the mechanism of its toxicity and on the several attempts made for prevention or attenuation of its toxic action, a detailed description is given on chemistry and toxicokinetics of this mycotoxin. The mode of action of OTA is not clearly understood yet, and seems to be very complex. Inhibition of protein synthesis and energy production, induction of oxidative stress, DNA adduct formation, as well as apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle arrest are possibly involved in its toxic action. Since OTA binds very strongly to human and animal albumin, a major emphasis is done regarding OTA-albumin interaction. Displacement of OTA from albumin by drugs and by natural flavonoids are discussed in detail, hypothesizing their potentially beneficial effect in order to prevent or attenuate the OTA-induced toxic consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; nephropathy; toxicokinetics; cellular effects; albumin binding; flavonoids; prevention Ochratoxin A; nephropathy; toxicokinetics; cellular effects; albumin binding; flavonoids; prevention
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Kőszegi, T.; Poór, M. Ochratoxin A: Molecular Interactions, Mechanisms of Toxicity and Prevention at the Molecular Level. Toxins 2016, 8, 111.

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