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Toxins 2016, 8(12), 365; doi:10.3390/toxins8120365

ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin

Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Ernst Moritz Arndt-University, Felix Hausdorff-Strasse 1, B.10.06, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany
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Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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Abstract

Airway epithelial cells reduce cytosolic ATP content in response to treatment with S. aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla). This study was undertaken to investigate whether this is due to attenuated ATP generation or to release of ATP from the cytosol and extracellular ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes. Exposure of cells to rHla did result in mitochondrial calcium uptake and a moderate decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that ATP regeneration may have been attenuated. In addition, ATP may have left the cells through transmembrane pores formed by the toxin or through endogenous release channels (e.g., pannexins) activated by cellular stress imposed on the cells by toxin exposure. Exposure of cells to an alpha-toxin mutant (H35L), which attaches to the host cell membrane but does not form transmembrane pores, did not induce ATP release from the cells. The Hla-mediated ATP-release was completely blocked by IB201, a cyclodextrin-inhibitor of the alpha-toxin pore, but was not at all affected by inhibitors of pannexin channels. These results indicate that, while exposure of cells to rHla may somewhat reduce ATP production and cellular ATP content, a portion of the remaining ATP is released to the extracellular space and degraded by ecto-enzymes. The release of ATP from the cells may occur directly through the transmembrane pores formed by alpha-toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATP efflux; airway epithelial cells; Staphylococcus aureus; virulence factor; alpha-toxin ATP efflux; airway epithelial cells; Staphylococcus aureus; virulence factor; alpha-toxin
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Baaske, R.; Richter, M.; Möller, N.; Ziesemer, S.; Eiffler, I.; Müller, C.; Hildebrandt, J.-P. ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin. Toxins 2016, 8, 365.

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