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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 328; doi:10.3390/toxins8110328

Development and Validation of a LC-ESI-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Alternaria Toxins Alternariol, Alternariol Methyl-Ether and Tentoxin in Tomato and Tomato-Based Products

Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
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Academic Editor: Aldo Laganà
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC-MS/MS Method for Mycotoxin Analysis)
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Abstract

Alternaria species are capable of producing several secondary toxic metabolites in infected plants and in agricultural commodities, which play important roles in food safety. Alternaria alternata turn out to be the most frequent fungal species invading tomatoes. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tentoxin (TEN) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food. In this work, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous quantification of AOH, AME, and TEN in tomato and tomato-based products was developed. Mycotoxin analysis was performed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Careful optimization of the MS/MS parameters was performed with an LC/MS system with the ESI interface in the positive ion mode. Mycotoxins were efficiently extracted from sample extract into a droplet of chloroform (100 µL) by DLLME technique using acetonitrile as a disperser solvent. Method validation following the Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC was carried out by using tomato juice as a blank matrix. Limits of detection and quantitation were, respectively, in the range 0.7 and 3.5 ng/g. Recovery rates were above 80%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr) and intermediate reproducibility (RSDR) were ≤ 9% and ≤ 15%, respectively, at levels of 25 and 50 ng/g. Five out of 30 analyzed samples resulted positive to at least one Alternaria toxin investigated. AOH was the most common Alternaria toxin found, but at levels close to LOQ (average content: 3.75 ng/g). View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria; LC-MS/MS; dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; tomato Alternaria; LC-MS/MS; dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; tomato
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Rodríguez-Carrasco, Y.; Mañes, J.; Berrada, H.; Juan, C. Development and Validation of a LC-ESI-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Alternaria Toxins Alternariol, Alternariol Methyl-Ether and Tentoxin in Tomato and Tomato-Based Products. Toxins 2016, 8, 328.

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