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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 304; doi:10.3390/toxins8100304

A Comprehensive View of the Structural and Functional Alterations of Extracellular Matrix by Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs): Novel Perspectives on the Pathophysiology of Envenoming

1
Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501-2060, Costa Rica
2
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501-2060, Costa Rica
3
School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22959, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: R. Manjunatha Kini and Stephen P. Mackessy
Received: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snake Venom Metalloproteinases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4706 KB, uploaded 22 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) affect the extracellular matrix (ECM) in multiple and complex ways. Previously, the combination of various methodological platforms, including electron microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot, has allowed a partial understanding of such complex pathology. In recent years, the proteomics analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of tissues affected by SVMPs has provided novel and exciting information on SVMP-induced ECM alterations. The presence of fragments of an array of ECM proteins, including those of the basement membrane, has revealed a complex pathological scenario caused by the direct action of SVMPs. In addition, the time-course analysis of these changes has underscored that degradation of some fibrillar collagens is likely to depend on the action of endogenous proteinases, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), synthesized as a consequence of the inflammatory process. The action of SVMPs on the ECM also results in the release of ECM-derived biologically-active peptides that exert diverse actions in the tissue, some of which might be associated with reparative events or with further tissue damage. The study of the effects of SVMP on the ECM is an open field of research which may bring a renewed understanding of snake venom-induced pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteomics; exudate; extracellular matrix; basement membrane; hemorrhage; snake venom metalloproteinases; FACITs proteomics; exudate; extracellular matrix; basement membrane; hemorrhage; snake venom metalloproteinases; FACITs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gutiérrez, J.M.; Escalante, T.; Rucavado, A.; Herrera, C.; Fox, J.W. A Comprehensive View of the Structural and Functional Alterations of Extracellular Matrix by Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs): Novel Perspectives on the Pathophysiology of Envenoming. Toxins 2016, 8, 304.

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