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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 287; doi:10.3390/toxins8100287

Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir) Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections

1
Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
3
Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
4
Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
5
Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baltasar Escriche
Received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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Abstract

In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry. View Full-Text
Keywords: Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii; pir toxin; pirA and pirB transcript detection; portal of entry; tissue specificity Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii; pir toxin; pirA and pirB transcript detection; portal of entry; tissue specificity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Castagnola, A.; Mulley, G.; Davis, N.; Waterfield, N.; Stock, S.P. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir) Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections. Toxins 2016, 8, 287.

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