Next Article in Journal
Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Liver Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat
Previous Article in Journal
Vasoactivity and Vasoconstriction Changes in Cattle Related to Time off Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 273; doi:10.3390/toxins8100273

Different Toxicity Mechanisms for Citrinin and Ochratoxin A Revealed by Transcriptomic Analysis in Yeast

1
Department of Biotechnology, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Ingeniero Fausto Elio s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology and Therapy, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia IBV-CSIC, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2466 KB, uploaded 22 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are important mycotoxins, which frequently co-contaminate foodstuff. In order to assess the toxicologic threat posed by the two mycotoxins separately or in combination, their biological effects were studied here using genomic transcription profiling and specific live cell gene expression reporters in yeast cells. Both CIT and OTA cause highly transient transcriptional activation of different stress genes, which is greatly enhanced by the disruption of the multidrug exporter Pdr5. Therefore, we performed genome-wide transcription profiling experiments with the pdr5 mutant in response to acute CIT, OTA, or combined CIT/OTA exposure. We found that CIT and OTA activate divergent and largely nonoverlapping gene sets in yeast. CIT mainly caused the rapid induction of antioxidant and drug extrusion-related gene functions, while OTA mainly deregulated developmental genes related with yeast sporulation and sexual reproduction, having only a minor effect on the antioxidant response. The simultaneous exposure to CIT and OTA gave rise to a genomic response, which combined the specific features of the separated mycotoxin treatments. The application of stress-specific mutants and reporter gene fusions further confirmed that both mycotoxins have divergent biological effects in cells. Our results indicate that CIT exposure causes a strong oxidative stress, which triggers a massive transcriptional antioxidant and drug extrusion response, while OTA mainly deregulates developmental genes and only marginally induces the antioxidant defense. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; Citrinin; Transcriptome; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; mycotoxins; oxidative stress; dose response Ochratoxin A; Citrinin; Transcriptome; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; mycotoxins; oxidative stress; dose response
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vanacloig-Pedros, E.; Proft, M.; Pascual-Ahuir, A. Different Toxicity Mechanisms for Citrinin and Ochratoxin A Revealed by Transcriptomic Analysis in Yeast. Toxins 2016, 8, 273.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top