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Toxins 2016, 8(1), 10; doi:10.3390/toxins8010010

A Rapid LC-HRMS Method for the Determination of Domoic Acid in Urine Using a Self-Assembly Pipette Tip Solid-Phase Extraction

1,2
,
3,* and 1,2,*
1
Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, China
2
Fujian Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploitation and Utilization of Marine Biological Resources, Xiamen 361005, China
3
Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irina Vetter
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

In this study, we developed a self-assembly pipette tip solid-phase extraction (PTSPE) method using a high molecular weight polymer material (PAX) as the adsorbent for the determination of domoic acid (DA) in human urine samples by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. The PTSPE cartridge, assembled by packing 9.1 mg of PAX as sorbent into a 200 μL pipette tip, showed high adsorption capacity for DA owing to the strong cationic properties of PAX. Compared with conventional SPE, the PTSPE is simple and fast, and shows some advantages in the aspects of less solvent consumption, low cost, the absence of the evaporation step, and short time requirement. All the parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as pH, the amount of sorbent, the number of aspirating/dispensing cycles, and the type and volume of eluent in PTSPE were carefully investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of DA were 0.12 μg/L and 0.37 μg/L respectively. The extraction recoveries of DA from the urine samples spiked at four different concentrations were in a range from 88.4% to 102.5%. The intra- and inter-day precisions varied from 2.1% to 7.6% and from 2.6% to 12.7%, respectively. The accuracy ranged from −1.9% to −7.4%. View Full-Text
Keywords: domoic acid; urine; pipette tip solid-phase extraction; amnesic shellfish poisoning; high resolution mass spectrometry domoic acid; urine; pipette tip solid-phase extraction; amnesic shellfish poisoning; high resolution mass spectrometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, Y.; Chen, D.; Hong, Z. A Rapid LC-HRMS Method for the Determination of Domoic Acid in Urine Using a Self-Assembly Pipette Tip Solid-Phase Extraction. Toxins 2016, 8, 10.

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