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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 2773-2790; doi:10.3390/toxins7082773

Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology

1
Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 95/A, Parma 43124, Italy
2
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Research and Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenzstr. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Barilla G.R. F.lli SpA, Advanced Laboratory Research, via Mantova 166, 43122 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 22 April 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; design of experiment; food processing; baking; rusks deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; design of experiment; food processing; baking; rusks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Generotti, S.; Cirlini, M.; Malachova, A.; Sulyok, M.; Berthiller, F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Suman, M. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology. Toxins 2015, 7, 2773-2790.

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