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Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1109-1138; doi:10.3390/toxins6031109
Review

Presence of the Neurotoxin BMAA in Aquatic Ecosystems: What Do We Really Know?

Received: 18 January 2014; in revised form: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
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Abstract: The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is suspected to play a role in the neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. BMAA production by cyanobacteria has been reported and contact with cyanobacteria infested waters or consumption of aquatic organisms are possible pathways to human exposure. However, there is little consensus regarding whether BMAA is present in cyanobacteria or not, and if so, at what concentrations. The aim of this review is to indicate the current state of knowledge on the presence of BMAA in aquatic ecosystems. Some studies have convincingly shown that BMAA can be present in aquatic samples at the µg/g dry weight level, which is around the detection limit of some equally credible studies in which no BMAA was detected. However, for the majority of the reviewed articles, it was unclear whether BMAA was correctly identified, either because inadequate analytical methods were used, or because poor reporting of analyses made it impossible to verify the results. Poor analysis, reporting and prolific errors have shaken the foundations of BMAA research. First steps towards estimation of human BMAA exposure are to develop and use selective, inter-laboratory validated methods and to correctly report the analytical work.
Keywords: bioaccumulation; α-,γ-diaminobutyric acid; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; food web; validation; HPLC-FLD; LC-MS/MS; GC-MS; ELISA bioaccumulation; α-,γ-diaminobutyric acid; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; food web; validation; HPLC-FLD; LC-MS/MS; GC-MS; ELISA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Faassen, E.J. Presence of the Neurotoxin BMAA in Aquatic Ecosystems: What Do We Really Know? Toxins 2014, 6, 1109-1138.

AMA Style

Faassen EJ. Presence of the Neurotoxin BMAA in Aquatic Ecosystems: What Do We Really Know? Toxins. 2014; 6(3):1109-1138.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Faassen, Elisabeth J. 2014. "Presence of the Neurotoxin BMAA in Aquatic Ecosystems: What Do We Really Know?" Toxins 6, no. 3: 1109-1138.


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