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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 488-508; doi:10.3390/toxins6020488
Article

Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants

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Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract: Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and animal health. Biomagnification, though not well understood in aquatic systems, is potentially relevant to both human and animal health effects. Because little is known regarding their presence in fresh water, we investigated the occurrence and potential for bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in several Nebraska reservoirs. Collection and analysis of 387 environmental and biological samples (water, fish, and aquatic plant) provided a snapshot of their occurrence. A sensitive detection method was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) with confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). HPLC/FD detection limits ranged from 5 to 7 µg/L and LC/MS/MS detection limits were <0.5 µg/L, while detection limits for biological samples were in the range of 0.8–3.2 ng/g depending on the matrix. Based on these methods, measurable levels of these neurotoxic compounds were detected in approximately 25% of the samples, with detections of BMAA in about 18.1%, DABA in 17.1%, and anatoxin-a in 11.9%.
Keywords: BMAA; DABA; anatoxin-a; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; fish; plants; fresh water BMAA; DABA; anatoxin-a; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; fish; plants; fresh water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Sammak, M.A.; Hoagland, K.D.; Cassada, D.; Snow, D.D. Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants. Toxins 2014, 6, 488-508.

AMA Style

Al-Sammak MA, Hoagland KD, Cassada D, Snow DD. Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):488-508.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Sammak, Maitham A.; Hoagland, Kyle D.; Cassada, David; Snow, Daniel D. 2014. "Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants." Toxins 6, no. 2: 488-508.



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